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Peer Reviewed Papers, Books, Chapters

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1. BACKGROUND: Cachexia, described as weight loss (mainly in lean body mass [LBM]) and anorexia, is common in patients with advanced cancer. Pubmed BACKGROUND: Cachexia, described as weight loss (mainly in lean body mass [LBM]) and anorexia, is common in patients with advanced cancer. This study examined the efficacy and safety of anamorelin (ONO-7643), a novel selective ghrelin receptor agonist, in Japanese cancer patients with cachexia. METHODS: This double-blind clinical trial (ONO-7643-04) enrolled 174 patients with unresectable stage III/IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and cachexia in Japan. Patients were randomized to daily oral anamorelin (100 mg) or a placebo for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was the change from the baseline LBM (measured with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) over 12 weeks. The secondary endpoints were changes in appetite, body weight, quality of life, handgrip strength (HGS), and 6-minute walk test (6MWT) results. RESULTS: The least squares mean change (plus or minus the standard error) in LBM from the baseline over 12 weeks was 1.38 ± 0.18 and -0.17 ± 0.17 kg in the anamorelin and placebo groups, respectively (P < .0001). Changes from the baseline in LBM, body weight, and anorexia symptoms showed significant differences between the 2 treatment groups at all time points. Anamorelin increased prealbumin at weeks 3 and 9. No changes in HGS or 6MWT were detected between the groups. Twelve weeks' treatment with anamorelin was safe and well tolerated in NSCLC patients. CONCLUSIONS: Anamorelin significantly increased LBM and improved anorexia symptoms and the nutritional state, but not motor function, in Japanese patients with advanced NSCLC. Because no effective treatment for cancer cachexia is currently available, anamorelin can be a beneficial treatment option. Cancer 2018;124:606-16. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Cancer Society. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made. © 2017 American Cancer Society. anamorelin (ONO-7643); cachexia; lean body mass; non-small cell lung cancer; randomized controlled trial
2. PARP inhibitors (PARPi) have been effective in high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC), although clinical activity is limited against BRCA wild type HGSOC. Pubmed PARP inhibitors (PARPi) have been effective in high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC), although clinical activity is limited against BRCA wild type HGSOC. The nearly universal loss of normal p53 regulation in HGSOCs causes dysfunction in the G1/S checkpoint, making tumor cells reliant on Chk1-mediated G2/M cell cycle arrest for DNA repair. Therefore, Chk1 is a reasonable target for a combination strategy with PARPi in treating BRCA wild type HGSOC. Here we investigated the combination of prexasertib mesylate monohydrate (LY2606368), a Chk1 and Chk2 inhibitor, and a PARP inhibitor, olaparib, in HGSOC cell lines (OVCAR3, OV90, PEO1 and PEO4) using clinically attainable concentrations. Our findings showed combination treatment synergistically decreased cell viability in all cell lines and induced greater DNA damage and apoptosis than the control and/or monotherapies (p<0.05). Treatment with olaparib in BRCA wild type HGSOC cells caused formation of Rad51 foci, whereas the combination treatment with prexasertib inhibited transnuclear localization of Rad51, a key protein in homologous recombination repair. Overall, our data provide evidence that prexasertib and olaparib combination resulted in synergistic cytotoxic effects against BRCA wild type HGSOC cells through reduced Rad51 foci formation and greater induction of apoptosis. This may be a novel therapeutic strategy for HGSOC. LY2606368; PARP inhibitor; cell cycle checkpoint kinase inhibitor; olaparib; prexasertib


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