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Peer Reviewed Papers, Books, Chapters

Year Title Citation Authors Review type Summary Keywords File filename File mime type
1. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as one of the crucial regulators of cancer progression. Pubmed MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as one of the crucial regulators of cancer progression. Some miRNAs are reported to be related to the response of breast cancer to tamoxifen (TAM). In this study, we investigated whether the levels of TAM response-related miRNAs translate to patient survival. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) datasets were used and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) was performed. Four TAM response-related miRNAs, miR-221, miR-222, miR-342, and miR-451, were identified by literature search. Patients with high expression of miR-342, related to TAM sensitivity, were associated with better survival in TCGA cohort (Overall Survival (OS), p=0.02; Disease Free Survival (DFS), p=0.03, respectively), and in two other independent GEO cohorts (OS, p=0.02 and p=0.0007, respectively). High expression of miR-342 was associated with significantly better survival in ER-positive patients (p=0.04), but not in ER-negative or triple-negative patients. Surprisingly, high expression of miR-451, reported to increase the sensitivity to TAM, was associated with worse survival (p=0.002). MiR-221 and miR-222 did not show any significance in survival. Lastly, GSEA demonstrated that lower miR-342 expression was significantly associated with the enrichment of TAM resistance-related gene expression, and higher miR-342 expression with TAM sensitivity-related gene expression, but miR-221, miR-222 and miR-451 were not. For the first time, we used "big data" from TCGA and GEO cohorts to analyze multiple miRNAs with respect to survival impact and TAM sensitivities. We demonstrated that TAM sensitivity-related miR-342 could be a promising biomarker, especially in luminal type breast cancer patients. breast cancer; microRNA; prognostic biomarker; response; tamoxifen
2. Transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) is an important driver of tumor growth via intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms, and is therefore an attractive target for developing cancer therapeutics. Pubmed Transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) is an important driver of tumor growth via intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms, and is therefore an attractive target for developing cancer therapeutics. Using preclinical models, we characterized the anti-tumor activity of a small molecule inhibitor of TGFβ receptor I (TGFβRI), galunisertib (LY2157299 monohydrate). Galunisertib demonstrated potent and selective inhibition of TGFβRI with corresponding inhibition of downstream signaling via inhibition of SMAD phosphorylation (pSMAD). Galunisertib also inhibited TGFβ-induced pSMAD in vivo, which enabled a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profile in Calu6 and EMT6-LM2 tumors. Galunisertib demonstrated anti-tumor activity including inhibition of tumor cell migration and mesenchymal phenotype, reversal of TGFβ-mediated immune-suppression, and tumor growth delay. A concentration-effect relationship was established with a dosing schedule to achieve the optimal level of target modulation. Finally, a rat model demonstrated a correlation between galunisertib-dependent inhibition of pSMAD in tumor tissues and in PBMCs, supporting the use of PBMCs for assessing pharmacodynamic effects. Galunisertib has been tested in several clinical studies with evidence of anti-tumor activity observed in subsets of patients. Here, we demonstrate that galunisertib inhibits a number of TGFβ-dependent functions leading to anti-tumor activity. The enhanced understanding of galunisertib provides rationale for further informed clinical development of TGFβ pathway inhibitors. LY2157299; SMAD; TGFβ receptor I; galunisertib


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